Waspada, Ini Daftar 231 Pinjaman Online Ilegal dari OJK



Fintech
Ilustrasi fintech. Dok: sbs.ox.ac.uk

Liputan6.com, Jakarta - Otoritas Jasa Keuangan (OJK) mengeluarkan daftar 231 Penyelenggara Layanan Pinjam Meminjam Uang Berbasis Teknologi Informasi (Fintech Peer-To-Peer Lending) yang tidak memiliki izin.
Aktivitas 231 Fintech Peer-To-Peer Lending ilegal ini telah resmi diberhentikan oleh tim Satuan Tugas Penanganan Dugaan Tindakan Melawan Hukum di Bidang Penghimpunan Dana Masyarakat dan Pengelolaan Investasi atau Satgas Waspada Investasi.
Ketua Satgas Waspada Investasi, Tongam L. Tobing sebelumnya meminta masyarakat untuk tidak melakukan pinjaman terhadap Fintech Peer-To-Peer Lending yang tidak terdaftar atau izin OJK. Ini agar terhindar dari ulah Fintech Peer-To-Peer Lending ilegal tersebut.
Dia mengatakan saat ini banyak entitas Fintech Peer-To-Peer Lending yang melakukan kegiatan melalui aplikasi yang terdapat di appstore atau playstore. 
Bahkan juga di sosial media yang tidak terdaftar dan tidak berizin dari OJK, sesuai Peraturan Otoritas Jasa Keuangan Nomor 77/POJK.01/2016 sehingga berpotensi merugikan masyarakat.
Mau tahu mana saja penyelenggara pinjaman online ilegal tersebut? Berikut daftarnya dari keterangan tertulis OJK, Jumat (15/2/2019):
1. Platform: AkuRupiah Developer: owen lau
2. Platform: Ali Rupiah - pinjaman uang dana Developer: ALI RUPIAH
3. Platform: Bali Pinjaman - Dana Developer: Bali Technology
4. Platform: BambuLoan-Cari pinjaman uang dana seluruh internet Developer: ayo pinjaman
5. Platform: BambuPinjam-Cari tunai uang seluruh internet Developer: BambuTech
6. Platform: BlingBling Developer: Indo_tech
7. Platform: Bos Tunai Developer: onlinepinjam
8. Platform: Bos Tunai - Cair Secepat Kilat Developer: PT.Indo Digitech Studio
9. Platform: Bri KUR Pinjaman Modal Developer: francise
10. Platform: CairToday Developer: Juliet Squillace
11. Platform: Cara Pinjam Uang Tanpa Agunan Developer: weton pondok
12. Platform: Cash Affairs- Pinjam Dana Jadi Lebih Terpercaya Developer: Dana Tunai Team
13. Platform: Cash Kita - pinjaman uang dana kita Developer: Luciana Sheila
14 Platform: Cash Now Developer: CashNow
15 Platform: Cashalo -- Fast, Easy and Secure Loans On-Demand Developer: Oriente Express
16 Platform: Cashcash : Pinjam uang jadi lebih mudah Developer: Firestorm-sea
17 Platform: Cashe - Pinjaman Cepat & Dana Kilat Developer: Rocket Studio Ltd.
18 Platform: CashMarket Developer: Dompet Technology
19 Platform: Cashpedia Developer: dividetest1004
20 Platform: CCcash pinjaman-online uang Tunai pinjaman Developer: cs@CCcash
21 Platform: Cepat Lunas-Pinjaman Uang Tunai Tanpa Jaminan Developer: Denice Presna
22 Platform: CreditSmart Developer: PT.FINTECH BERSAMA INDONESIA
23 Platform: Credy Developer: Credy
24 Platform: Credy | Préstamos personales Developer: App for Be Happy
25 Platform: Dana Arda - pinjam uang cepat cair Developer: pinjaman Apps
26 Platform: Dana Berkah - Pengajuan Kredit Online Developer: OTRET.COM
27 Platform: Dana Bijak Developer: Mi Developers
28 Platform: Dana Cepat - Pinjaman Online Super Kilat Developer: Rocket Studio Ltd.
29 Platform: Dana Cepat-platform pinjaman profesional dan cepat Developer: helen McFadden
30 Platform: Dana Flash - pinjaman cash kredit Developer: Dana Flash
31 Platform: Dana Happy Developer: Dana Happy
32 Platform: Dana Indonesia - Pinjaman Uang Cepat Developer: PT. DANA INDONESIA
33 Platform: Dana kilat-Pinjaman online mudah & cepat Developer: Gatling DeGrave
34 Platform: Dana Ok Developer: leslie lee
35 Platform: Dana Pinjam - Pinjam Tanpa Ribet Developer: Anugerah Digital Niaga
36 Platform: Dana Pinjam + Versi Baru Developer: Dana Pinjam VIP
37 Platform: Dana Pinjaman Modal Cepat Terkini Developer: TB Dev
38 Platform: Dana Sukses Developer: PT. Pratama Asia Abadi
39 Platform: Dana Tunai - Cara Pintar Mendapatkan Pinjaman Developer: vandezz inc.
40 Platform: Dana Tunai Kredit Lengkap Developer: FatRam Dev
41 Platform: Dana Tunai-Kredit Dana Pinjaman Aman Cepat Developer: Alat pinjaman
42 Platform: Dana Uang - Pinjaman Uang Tunai Rupiah Developer: Zhu Xia
43 Platform: Danain Cepat - Cara Mendapatkan Pinjaman Aman Developer: Pratadit DevAnd
44 Platform: DanaKita Developer: PT. DanaKta Prima
45 Platform: DanaPlusDeveloper: Claire Mcclasky
46 Platform: Danapro Developer: Jason Christoper
47 Platform: DanaQ-Pinjaman Uang Rupiah Tunai via danaq cepat Developer: PT. DanaQ
48 Platform: Danaxtra Developer: Danaxtra
49 Platform: Data Seluler-Pinjam Uang Cepat Developer: Meminjam Uang Team
50 Platform: Dokter Uang - Pasar Rupiah Docter Developer: Dana Limited
51 Platform: Dompet Cash-Platform Pinjaman Online Cepat Developer: Jamel Baca
52 Platform: Dompet Kartu - Pinjaman Uang Developer: DompetKartu
53 Platform: Dompet Kartu Plus - Pinjaman Uang Dana Developer: Mari Brisby
54 Platform: dompet-wisdom Rupiah Cash Pinjaman Developer: DompetWisdom Group
55 Platform: Druang Uang Developer: Cheetah Teknologi
56 Platform: Duit - Plus Pinjam Uang online Cepat Mudah Developer: Rupiah fintech
57 Platform: Duit-Flash - Pinjaman Uang Tunai Developer: Duit Flash
58 Platform: Dukungan Hidup Developer: Dukungan Hidup



Ilustrasi OJK

59 Platform: Easy Direct Loans Developer: kalya apps
60 Platform: Easy Pinjaman : Pinjam uang lebih gampang Developer: uangmarket
61 Platform: Easy Uang– Platform Pinjaman Online Cepat Developer: EasyUang
62 Platform: EasyPinjaman-Platform Pinjaman Online Cepat Developer: Mao cleveland
63 Platform: ExpressCash-Kredit Dana Rupiah Pinjam Cepat Online Developer: Marvina Christensen
64 Platform: Faida-pal loans Developer: ru-soft
65 Platform: Fast Loans - Instant Pay Day Loan Developer: Online Loans | Fast Loans | Personal Loans
66 Platform: flash Rupiah Developer: PT. Lombok Jaya Teknologi
67 Platform: flash rupiah pro Developer: Salim Putri
68 Platform: Fulusku Oke Developer: Fulus Rosso
69 Platform: Go Dana Developer: Best Customer Service
70 Platform: Go Duit - Pinjaman dana darurat Developer: Customer Service 1
71 Platform: Go Kredit— Pinjaman Kredit Cepat Developer: martinsutrisno
72 Platform: Gogo Dana Developer: Hyun Bron
73 Platform: GoPinjaman - Tunai Uang kredit Loan Developer: rxiao
74 Platform: GoTunai Lite - Pinjaman Uang Cepat Kredit Mudah Developer: Meixin Global Fintech
75 Platform: GudangCash - Pinjam Rupiah Online Cepat Duit Developer: Uang NOVIANTY
76 Platform: Hanya Kamu Developer: Mustofa Software
77 Platform: iDana Developer: iDana_id
78 Platform: iPinjaman Developer: Mobile Loan
79 Platform: Kami Bantu Developer: Kami Bantu Software
80 Platform: Kami Dana Rupiah Developer: Pt. Saku cepiat technology
81 Platform: KamiRupiah-kredit pinjaman dana tunai tanpa agunan Developer: Harvey Prestia
82 Platform: Kantong Darurat Developer: Fan Technology
83 Platform: Kasku Cepat - Dana Uang Duit Pinjaman Cepat Mudah Developer: KASKU CEPAT
84 Platform: KasSaya Developer: PT Kayanan Seuangan Perbag
85 Platform: Kekurangan Uang Developer: PINJAMAN PETIR
86 Platform: Kilat Kredit - Kredit Cepat Kredit Developer: Keiana CROSBY
87 Platform: KooRupiah - Pinjaman Uang Developer: KooRupiah
88 Platform: Kredee-Kredit Pinjaman Uang Online Developer: Kredee
89 Platform: Kredit Cepat - Pinjaman Uang Tunai Developer: Mi Developers
90 Platform: Kredit cepat-pinjman dana online Developer: Kredit Cepat Plus
91 Platform: Kredit Pinjaman Uang Developer: David Beet
92 Platform: Kredit Pinjaman Uang Online Dana Kilat Developer: Kredit Pinjaman Uang Dana
93 Platform: Kredit Pintar Developer: Panda Information Technology Co., Ltd.
94 Platform: Kredit Pintar Developer: Panda Information Technology Co., Ltd.
95 Platform: Kredit Tanpa Agunan dan Kartu Kredit Developer: asiagolgroup
96 Platform: Kredit Uang - Pinjam Online Cepat Developer: Pinjaman Dana
97 Platform: Kredit Yuk - pinjaman dana online Developer: Bagus Akbar
98 Platform: KreditPas Developer: PT. Explorindo Total Solusi
99 Platform: Kreditviewer.com Developer: PT. Viewer Digital Indonesia
100 Platform: KreTA - pinjam uang cepat mudah Developer: KreTA APP TEAM
101 Platform: KTA - Dana Tunai Developer: Creative Media Dev
102 Platform: Ktedit Online Developer: HappyCell co. LTD
103 Platform: Lapak Tunai Developer: Infinity Digital
104 Platform: LetsGoRupiah - Ayo pinjam dana online sekarang Developer: pt Letter
105 Platform: Loan 1 Minute Developer: Loan Minute
106 Platform: Loan Fast In 2 Minute Developer: Loan Minute
107 Platform: Loan Kilat Developer: CentralPark
108 Platform: Loan Kilat Developer: CentralPark
109 Platform: Loan Money USA Developer: PlayTimeAppsNow
110 Platform: Loans UK Developer: Rainbow Group
111 Platform: MangoMoney Developer: ООО МФК "МангоФинанс"
112 Platform: Marahaba quick loans- emergency mobile loans Developer: starzxapps
113 Platform: Market Pinjaman Developer: R-Works
114 Platform: Mr.Money - pinjaman rupiah cepat cair Developer: Fendy Christoper
115 Platform: OnDebt - hutang dan pinjaman Developer: GoBestApps
116 Platform: Online Loans - Personal Unsecured Loans Developer: Online Loans | Fast Loans | Personal Loans


Ketua Komisioner OJK Wimboh Santoso saat Penutupan Pasar Saham di BEI, Jakarta. Dok OJK

117 Platform: Open Loans Malaysia Developer: Viva PS
118 Platform: Open Loans Developer: Namibia Viva PS
119 Platform: PandaBill - UTuai Bill Developer: PT. Panda
120 Platform: Patnas Loans Developer: Eazy Mobiloans
121 Platform: Payday Advance Loan Online: Borrow Money Developer: Loan Mobile
122 Platform: Payday Loan Calculator, KreditCepat, Uang Cepat Developer: Finance apps by MoneyBoy - Crypto + Forex
123 Platform: Payday Loans - Personal Loans - Online Loans Developer: Payday Loans - Personal Loans - Credit
124 Platform: Payday Loans Online - Bad Credit Loans Developer: Payday Loans - Personal Loans - Credit
125 Platform: PenuhDompet Developer: Hirsh Otis
126 Platform: Personal loans online Developer: Happy Now
127 Platform: PinDavest Developer: PT Pinjamaja Digital Komersial
128 Platform: Pinjam Beres Developer: SIAMAH johnson
129 Platform: Pinjam Cepat-Pinjaman Uang Online Developer: Kellye Durch
130 Platform: Pinjam duit-platform pinjaman yang aman dan cepat Developer: Ricarda ARCENEAUX
131 Platform: Pinjam Kilat-Pinjam Uang Tunai Online Tanpa Agunan Developer: Mariella Pulley
132 Platform: Pinjam petir Developer: Jimmy_oy
133 Platform: Pinjam Plus - Pinjaman Uang Dana Cepat Developer: KoinTree
134 Platform: pinjam tunai - informasi pinjaman online Developer: JDone Dev
135 Platform: Pinjam Uang Cepat - Mudah dan Cair Kilat Developer: 3R Inc.
136 Platform: Pinjam Uang Kilat - Mudah, Cepat, Langsung Cair Developer: Bradley Hough
137 Platform: Pinjam Uang-Pinjaman Duit Aman & Mudah Developer: Brasil Moe
138 Platform: Pinjam Yuk - Mudah, Cepat Developer: Rifdan Digital Developer
139 Platform: PinjamAku Developer: Jacquelynn Artur
140 Platform: Pinjaman Cepat Developer: Creative Media Dev
141 Platform: Pinjaman Cepat - Pinjaman Kredit Online Cepat Developer: henry Sitton
142 Platform: Pinjaman Dana - Uang Rupiah Kredit Kita Developer: UTunai Tunai Indonesia
143 Platform: Pinjaman Dana - Uang Rupiah Kredit Developer: Kita UTunai Pro Tunai Indonesia
144 Platform: Pinjaman Dana di Pegadaian (Tutorial ) Developer: Natalie Zell
145 Platform: PINJAMAN DANA USAHA CEPAT Developer: Empat Sekawan
146 Platform: Pinjaman di Australia Developer: Viva PS
147 Platform: Pinjaman di Indonesia Developer: Viva PS
148 Platform: Pinjaman di Jerman Developer: Viva PS
149 Platform: Pinjaman gurita Developer: Pinjem Duwit
150 Platform: Pinjaman Hero Developer: hulingling
151 Platform: Pinjaman Mudah-Pinjaman uang tunai tanpa jaminan Developer: Tamica Brodt
152 Platform: Pinjaman Nusantara Developer: huangzhi
153 Platform: Pinjaman Oke - Nyaman dan cepat Developer: Nvvuopd Ostudio
154 Platform: Pinjaman online Developer: moneymon908@gmail.com
155 Platform: Pinjaman petir Developer: Pakar pinjaman
156 Platform: Pinjaman Tunai-Pinjaman Uang Cepat Developer: Pinjaman Tunai
157 Platform: Pinjaman Uang Tunai-Kredit Tunai Tanpa Hipotek Developer: Alia Swenson
158 Platform: Pinjaman Uang-Tempat pinjaman kredit cepat&mudah Developer: Janette Outman
159 Platform: Pinjaman24.id Developer: info@pinjaman24.id
160 Platform: Pinjamanku.com Developer: Amarta Development
161 Platform: PinjamBro- Kredit Pinjaman Dana Tunai Online Cepat Developer: Zandra Armetta
162 Platform: pinjam-dong Developer: pinjam tunai
163 Platform: Pinjamin Uang - Cepat dan Mudah Developer: easytechno.id
164 Platform: Pinjamlah Online Developer: Dawn Yang
165 Platform: Pinjam-Mon Developer: tang wen
166 Platform: PinjamMudah Developer: Audrey Spittler
167 Platform: Pinjam-pinjam Developer: Nbccv Ostudio
168 Platform: PinjamSaja Developer: Budi Pin
169 Platform: Pitih Kilat-Pinjaman Uang Developer: pitih kilat
170 Platform: Plus Pinjam Dana Uang - Rupiah Cepat Tunai Developer: PinjamanPlus
171 Platform: Pohon Dana - Pinjaman Uang Developer: Mi Developers
172 Platform: PondoCash Developer: BonusPondo
173 Platform: Pop Cash - Pinjam Uang Cepat Mudah Developer: Flash POP Android TEAM

Selanjutnya



Logo OJK. Liputan6.com/Nurmayanti

174 Platform: Prestamos Personales Rápidos -Créditos 💰💰Developer: Team Fd Apps
175 Platform: Préstamos Rapidos Developer: Financial Co LMTD
176 Platform: Quick Emergency Loans To Mpesa,fast Loans,Instant Developer: Loans Branch
177 Platform: Ragam Tunai: Cicilan Kredit Cepat Pinjam Uang Cash Developer: Lorrine Starch
178 Platform: Raja Pinjaman Developer: doubletan
179 Platform: Raja-Uang Id Developer: raja developer team
180 Platform: Robocash - Online Loan Robot Developer: Robocash.id
181 Platform: Rocket Cash - kredit uang cepat Developer: Hermosa Anne
182 Platform: Rupiah Cepat- kredit pinjaman online easy rupiah Developer: Rupiah Cepat
183 Platform: Rupiah Get Developer: RupiahGet
184 Platform: Rupiah Kita Developer: doubletan
185 Platform: Rupiah Teman-Pinjam Uang Rupiah Cash Tunai Developer: PT MATAHARI MAKMUR ABADI
186 Platform: Rupiah Toko - Kredit Pinjaman Uang Online Cepat Developer: Kredit Xendit
187 Platform: Rupiah Zone Developer: Kurnia Jaya Intan Teknologi
188 Platform: Sahabat Kredit - pinjaman uang Developer: Doni Awan
189 Platform: Saku Kita Developer: Sakukita Cermat
190 Platform: Salam Siap Developer: Dhani Software
191 Platform: Sasa loans - quick and fast mobile loans Developer: starzxapps
192 Platform: Solusi Cepat Developer: Chiam Soon Chian
193 Platform: Surya Dana Developer: ELMI NET.
194 Platform: Syarat Kredit Tanpa Agunan Di Setujui Developer: nawaitu
195 Platform: TangBull - Pinjaman Uang Dana Online Aman & Cepat Developer: PT. TangBull Tech Indonesia
196 Platform: TasCash - Dompet online Anda Developer: TasCash
197 Platform: Teman Uang Developer: Viva PS
198 Platform: TokoDana-Pinjaman Kredit Uang Rupiah Kilat & Mudah Developer: Clauson Wade
199 Platform: TokoRupiah -pinjaman mudah online cash loans Developer: Pinjaman Dana Tunai Cepat Online
200 Platform: Tunai Kita - Pinjam Kilat dan Mudah Developer: Royal Digital Inc.
201 Platform: Tunai Plus - Pinjaman Uang Cepat Kredit Mudah Developer: Meixin Global Fintech
202 Platform: TunaiBoxPlus Developer: bumgHunge
203 Platform: TunaiKan Developer: Tunai Jaya Teknologi
204 Platform: TunaiMart - Pinjaman uang tunai cepat Developer: TunaiMart
205 Platform: TunaiPlus Developer: Dompet Technology
206 Platform: TunaiTunai - Pinjaman uang tunai Developer: Meixin Global Fintech
207 Platform: Tuntasin Developer: FITRI SOFTWARE APP
208 Platform: uang cash Developer: shengqiang
209 Platform: Uang Cash-Kredit Tunai Pinjaman Uang Online Cepat Developer: Kredit
210 Platform: uang koo:Re - Fastest Secure Loan Developer: Sheenag.Saundra
211 Platform: Uang Pinjaman Developer: Semangat 45, PT
212 Platform: Uang Rupiah Developer: Uang Rupiah
213 Platform: UangKas - Pinjaman Cepat Terkini Developer: Uangkas
214 Platform: Uang-Kita—Pinjaman Uang Tunai Developer: Uang—Kita
215 Platform: Uang-Mesin -[adalah aplikasi pinjaman online KTA] Developer: Uangmesin
216 Platform: Uangonline-Pinjaman Dana Uang Online Developer: worldpeace
217 Platform: UangSkr Developer: yuli sulasttri
218 Platform: U-Box pinjaman mudah cepat easy duit dana Developer: U-BOX Android
219 Platform: U-need Developer: PT nufoundtech
220 Platform: Upesi Loans Developer: Masstarg
221 Platform: Wall In Developer: Wiwik Arsianti
222 Platform: Your payday loans online personal Developer: Vasiliy Burenkov
223 Platform: Займы на карту Developer: NKN Mobi
224 Platform: 开放贷款中国 Developer: Viva PS
225 Platform: @_ksp_nasari KOPERASI PINJAMAN DANA OJK
226 Platform: @ojk_dana_online KSP SEJAHTERA BERSAMA
227 Platform: @kufi_rupiah / @ojk_dana PINJAMAN DANA ONLINE
228 Platform: @ksp_nasari_syariah_KOPERASI PINJAMAN DANA OJk
229 Platform: @ksp.nasari_KOPERASI PINJAMAN DANA OJK🇲
230 Platform: @koperasi_ojk_pinjaman_online PINJAMAN DANA TUNAI(OJK)
231 Platform: @dana_part2
Artikel Asli
Acne Treatment Solutions - A Comprehensive Review Acne plagues thousands of people around the world. From teenagers to adults on the wrong side of middle age, it is a skin disorder that is extremely common as well as very unpleasant. It is painful, distressing, and often leaves scars even after it is treated. There are hundreds of skin-care products that claim to treat acne. Finding the right treatment for you is almost like finding a needle in a haystack. To make things a little easier for you, here is a comprehensive review of five of the best acne treatment solutions as per popular ratings. The reviews are accurate, based on substantiate research, and are aimed at helping you make a healthy and informed choice. The five products being reviewed here are Murad Acne Complex, Proactive Acne Solutions, Clinique Acne Solutions, Clear Skin Max and Exposed Skin Care. Murad Acne Complex The Murad Acne Complex consists of a three-step process, which consists of a Clarifying Cleanser, an Exfoliating Acne Treatment Gel, and lastly a Skin Perfecting Moisturizer. It was developed by Howard Murad and has been a popular product for treating acne breakouts. The product has yielded mixed reviews from viewer ratings and is different from most other acne treatment products in the sense that it does not contain benzoyl peroxide, which is a leading ingredient used in most acne treatments. The product claims to remove all signs of acne in just 4 weeks. While this is not exactly accurate, results are often visible within the second month, depending on the severity of the condition. Pros While the purging period does see some aggravation of the condition, the product pulls through and actually gives visible results. The moisturizer smells pleasant and does not stick. The Pore Cleansing mask that the treatment comes with is quite helpful and has a lot of positive reviews. It uses a lot of natural extracts such as bitter orange oil, tea tree extracts, camellia leaf extract, menthol along with known acne fighters such as salicylic acid that help in curing acne without causing much damage to the skin. Spot sulfur treatment that it includes has also given positive results among a large number of users. Cons The purging period is extremely painful and itchy. The acne increases considerably before it is healed, if at all. Moreover, the product does not work for all skin types, and the moisturizer is not enough to help soothe the roughness and pain. Reviews have revealed that the system leaves the skin oily and shinier and that acne takes a lot of time to heal, especially if it is in its moderate or severe phase. Verdict The Murad Acne Complex might or might not work for you. It has mixed user ratings and though it can be helpful for minor to moderate acne, it has reportedly shown less impressive results for severe cases of acne. However it might work if you have oily skin. Proactive Acne Solution Proactive Acne Solutions is an extremely popular, three-step acne treatment system that consist of cleansing, toning and acne repairing. A new product that Proactive recently added to its acne treatment list is a Refining Mask. The product was first manufactured in 1988 by Guthy-Renker, and has been a popular treatment since. According to the instructions, only a dime sized amount of cleaner, a cotton ball of toner and a pea sized amount of repairing treatment is to be used twice daily for the system to work. Pros The system covers blackheads, pimples, whiteheads and cures immediate acne breakouts. It reduces the visibility of pores and leaves the skin fragrant. It works well for some and leaves skin soft and supple, if the instructions are followed exactly as given. The Refining Mask is very useful for drying up pimples since it consists of sulfur as an active ingredient, which is known to effectively kill acne causing surface bacteria. A Tea tree Moisturizer is also available as part of the kit and should definitely be used along with the system which is known to leave skin soft and dry. Cons The products are extremely harsh and may not yield good results, even aggravate the condition sometimes. The treatment causes excessive drying of the skin, and skin peeling has also been reported, though the exact cause of the peeling could not be determined. Proactive is expensive, and often does not yield positive results, sometimes even after 8 weeks of regular usage. It is also not recommended for dry to normal skin at all since it completely dries out the skin and leaves it reddened and irritated. Verdict All in all, even though Proactive might work for some, most users have reported negative results, with no improvement in the condition whatsoever. Despite this, it continues to be a popular product. You can try it for the sheer popularity of the product. Clinique Acne Solutions Clinique is a well known brand and has allergy tested and medically approved skin care products that are very effective in treating skin problems. Clinique Acne Solutions Skin Care Treatment uses gentle exfoliation and cleansing to unclog the clogged pores of your skin to reduce the dirt build up which causes acne. It is gentle on the skin, and does not contain any oily or smelly substances that could affect the skin negatively. Pros It uses salicylic acid as its main ingredient for acne treatment, which is popular for its anti-acne properties. The system consists of a cleanser, a gentle exfoliator and a lotion, which contains benzoyl peroxide. It clears acne by reducing oil secretion and improves the complexion with repeated use. The supplementary skin care products that Clinique offers are helpful in reducing blemishes and scars left by acne. "Even Better" is one such product that specializes in treating acne. The company also has spot treatment products that zap away almost all the pimples in the shortest possible time. The product claims to remove acne in 6 weeks, and leave skin softer and clearer. Cons 6 weeks is a longer period than that is promised by most acne treatment solutions. Most treatments claim to yield results within the first month of usage. There is no clear list of all anti acne ingredients used in this product since no official description or list is provided. It is good for curing sudden breakouts but does not hold out well in the long run. Salicylic acid and benzoyl peroxide are both not enough to treat acne in its core and there are no other primary anti acne agents, natural or otherwise in the system. Verdict The product sells on its brand name however does not live up to expectations. The product website does not give any detailed description of the anti-acne treatment, or about the ingredients that are used for making it. There are variety of other products in the market that might offer better results at lower prices and are all-natural. While Clinique works to remove a pimple here and a zit there, it fails to target the core problem of acne break outs. It can be used as an effective immediate spot treatment solution though. Clear Skin Max A relatively new member of the anti acne treatment family, Clear Skin Max is still proving its mettle in the skin care industry. Till now it has had some very positive reviews due to its new and all natural approach towards fighting acne. Clear Skin Max was designed as an alternative for those who did not want to subject their already damaged skin to further chemical damage. It uses natural ingredients that help in reducing inflammation, acne, and irritation without causing any side effects or without excessive drying of the skin. Pros Since the skin is naturally sensitive and acne inflicted skin gets further damaged with chemical treatment, products with natural ingredients are always a plus. Clear Skin Max uses anti-acne tea tree oils to control acne which have been reported to show immediate results in reducing inflammation. Chamomile oil and bladder wrack are also used to treat acne without causing any harm to the skin. Not only does the product treat acne but it also leaves skin softer. Better still, it does not contain any harsh chemicals that cause drying of the skin. Chamomile oil is effective in reducing scars and blemishes left by acne and since it is also an anti-bacterial agent, it also prevents acne naturally by fighting bacteria. Another plus point of the system is that it contains bladder wrack which is known not only for its anti-acne properties but also because it restores elasticity to the skin, helping the skin remain youthful and smooth. It also uses natural products like hyaluronic acid, which is a known youth restorative, jojoba oil and others that maintains the moisture levels of the skin. These natural extracts not only fight acne but also strengthen the skin from inside and thus prevent breakouts, apart from clearing the skin of acne and its scars. Cons The ingredients are not used in high quantities in the product, which sometimes may not be enough to treat acne. Severe acne might not be easily treated with natural ingredients, since they require stronger ingredients that directly aim at reducing acne. Even though the 6-step system is designed to fight and destroy acne right from its roots, it will really take a long time to heal for those who suffer from severe cases of acne. The negative aspect of this point again depends on how patient the user is even though the product yields guaranteed results. Verdict Clear Skin Max is a complete product that not only helps fight acne but also helps to protect and strengthen the skin. It is great for mild to moderate acne as well as adult acne and has been reported to have minimal side effects. It uses natural ingredients that have no reported side effects and the product enjoys great reviews by most users. Exposed Skin Care Acne Treatment This acne treatment system consists of 6 different products, a facial cleanser, that cleanses and exfoliates the skin, a clearing tonic that claims to delve deep inside the clogged skin pores and opens them up so that the dirt and grime can escape. Then there is the Acne treatment Serum, which is the main repairing product that consists of benzoyl peroxide, a well-known anti acne element. A Clear Pore serum also comes with the system and is to be used at night; it works nocturnally to unclog your pores and clear skin. The last two products consist of a Clarifying mask which is to be used twice a week at most, and a Microderm scrub, that has anti oxidants for deep pore exfoliation. Pros It uses Azelaic acid, a known anti bacterial component as its primary ingredient, which clears acne by killing bacteria which is the main cause of acne. It also contains a 3.5% concentration of benzoyl acid, which is a popular ingredient in several anti-acne treatments. It deeply exfoliates skin to keep out all the unwanted oil and dirt from the pores. This enhances your skin and helps to keep it free from acne. Cons Azelaic acid has many known side effects such as skin irritation, and unwanted hair growth. Many users have reported an increase in the quantity of facial hair after repeated use of products containing high concentrations of azelaic acid. Also, the product lists tea tree oil as one of the leading ingredients, which can only be considered as a subsidiary product since it only aids treatment without playing any substantial role in the actual process. The 3.5% benzoyl peroxide concentration is not enough to fight acne, the standard requirement being 5% to 8% concentration. Severe cases of acne cannot be treated well with this range of products. Moreover the customer service is reportedly unresponsive, thus you might face a problem if you choose to pursue the money back guarantee at all. Verdict In conclusion, it can be said that this is a good product to use for those with mild acne but it does not work well for treating severe acne. Moreover many other products are available in the market that uses natural ingredients. Organic products are always a better option. This is another product that can be used to treat mild acne. However keep in mind that treating acne requires not just medication but also a healthy lifestyle. Proper diet, nutrition, exercise, sleep, hydration and hygiene are extremely important for a clear and healthy skin. Medications can only work when coupled with a healthy lifestyle. So if you are plagued with acne, first, change your lifestyle, and then clear your acne with the help of the perfect product for you, which you can pick with the help of these reviews. Article Source: http://EzineArticles.com/7083840

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Fire Insurance Under Indian Insurance Law A contract of Insurance comes into being when a person seeking insurance protection enters into a contract with the insurer to indemnify him against loss of property by or incidental to fire and or lightening, explosion, etc. This is primarily a contract and hence as is governed by the general law of contract. However, it has certain special features as insurance transactions, such as utmost faith, insurable interest, indemnity, subrogation and contribution, etc. these principles are common in all insurance contracts and are governed by special principles of law. FIRE INSURANCE: According to S. 2(6A), "fire insurance business" means the business of effecting, otherwise than incidentally to some other class of insurance business, contracts of insurance against loss by or incidental to fire or other occurrence, customarily included among the risks insured against in fire insurance business. According to Halsbury, it is a contract of insurance by which the insurer agrees for consideration to indemnify the assured up to a certain extent and subject to certain terms and conditions against loss or damage by fire, which may happen to the property of the assured during a specific period. Thus, fire insurance is a contract whereby the person, seeking insurance protection, enters into a contract with the insurer to indemnify him against loss of property by or incidental to fire or lightning, explosion etc. This policy is designed to insure one's property and other items from loss occurring due to complete or partial damage by fire. In its strict sense, a fire insurance contract is one: 1. Whose principle object is insurance against loss or damage occasioned by fire. 2. The extent of insurer's liability being limited by the sum assured and not necessarily by the extent of loss or damage sustained by the insured: and 3. The insurer having no interest in the safety or destruction of the insured property apart from the liability undertaken under the contract. LAW GOVERNING FIRE INSURANCE There is no statutory enactment governing fire insurance, as in the case of marine insurance which is regulated by the Indian Marine Insurance Act, 1963. the Indian Insurance Act, 1938 mainly dealt with regulation of insurance business as such and not with any general or special principles of the law relating fire of other insurance contracts. So also the General Insurance Business (Nationalization) Act, 1872. in the absence of any legislative enactment on the subject , the courts in India have in dealing with the topic of fire insurance have relied so far on judicial decisions of Courts and opinions of English Jurists. In determining the value of property damaged or destroyed by fire for the purpose of indemnity under a policy of fire insurance, it was the value of the property to the insured, which was to be measured. Prima facie that value was measured by reference of the market value of the property before and after the loss. However such method of assessment was not applicable in cases where the market value did not represent the real value of the property to the insured, as where the property was used by the insured as a home or, for carrying business. In such cases, the measure of indemnity was the cost of reinstatement. In the case of Lucas v. New Zealand Insurance Co. Ltd.[1] where the insured property was purchased and held as an income-producing investment, and therefore the court held that the proper measure of indemnity for damage to the property by fire was the cost of reinstatement. INSURABLE INTEREST A person who is so interested in a property as to have benefit from its existence and prejudice by its destruction is said to have insurable interest in that property. Such a person can insure the property against fire. The interest in the property must exist both at the inception as well as at the time of loss. If it does not exist at the commencement of the contract it cannot be the subject-matter of the insurance and if it does not exist at the time of the loss, he suffers no loss and needs no indemnity. Thus, where he sells the insured property and it is damaged by fire thereafter, he suffers no loss. RISKS COVERED UNDER FIRE INSURANCE POLICY The date of conclusion of a contract of insurance is issuance of the policy is different from the acceptance or assumption of risk. Section 64-VB only lays down broadly that the insurer cannot assume risk prior to the date of receipt of premium. Rule 58 of the Insurance Rules, 1939 speaks about advance payment of premiums in view of sub section (!) of Section 64 VB which enables the insurer to assume the risk from the date onwards. If the proposer did not desire a particular date, it was possible for the proposer to negotiate with insurer about that term. Precisely, therefore the Apex Court has said that final acceptance is that of the assured or the insurer depends simply on the way in which negotiations for insurance have progressed. Though the following are risks which seem to have covered Fire Insurance Policy but are not totally covered under the Policy. Some of contentious areas are as follows: FIRE: Destruction or damage to the property insured by its own fermentation, natural heating or spontaneous combustion or its undergoing any heating or drying process cannot be treated as damage due to fire. For e.g., paints or chemicals in a factory undergoing heat treatment and consequently damaged by fire is not covered. Further, burning of property insured by order of any Public Authority is excluded from the scope of cover. LIGHTNING : Lightning may result in fire damage or other types of damage, such as a roof broken by a falling chimney struck by lightning or cracks in a building due to a lightning strike. Both fire and other types of damages caused by lightning are covered by the policy. AIRCRAFT DAMAGE: The loss or damage to property (by fire or otherwise) directly caused by aircraft and other aerial devices and/ or articles dropped there from is covered. However, destruction or damage resulting from pressure waves caused by aircraft traveling at supersonic speed is excluded from the scope of the policy. RIOTS, STRIKES, MALICIOUS AND TERRORISM DAMAGES: The act of any person taking part along with others in any disturbance of public peace (other than war, invasion, mutiny, civil commotion etc.) is construed to be a riot, strike or a terrorist activity. Unlawful action would not be covered under the policy. STORM, CYCLONE, TYPHOON, TEMPEST, HURRICANE, TORNADO, FLOOD and INUNDATION: Storm, Cyclone, Typhoon, Tempest, Tornado and Hurricane are all various types of violent natural disturbances that are accompanied by thunder or strong winds or heavy rainfall. Flood or Inundation occurs when the water rises to an abnormal level. Flood or inundation should not only be understood in the common sense of the terms, i.e., flood in river or lakes, but also accumulation of water due to choked drains would be deemed to be flood. IMPACT DAMAGE: Impact by any Rail/ Road vehicle or animal by direct contact with the insured property is covered. However, such vehicles or animals should not belong to or owned by the insured or any occupier of the premises or their employees while acting in the course of their employment. SUBSIDENCE AND LANDSLIDE INCULUDING ROCKSIDE: Destruction or damage caused by Subsidence of part of the site on which the property stands or Landslide/ Rockslide is covered. While Subsidence means sinking of land or building to a lower level, Landslide means sliding down of land usually on a hill. However, normal cracking, settlement or bedding down of new structures; settlement or movement of made up ground; coastal or river erosion; defective design or workmanship or use of defective materials; and demolition, construction, structural alterations or repair of any property or ground-works or excavations, are not covered. BURSTING AND/OR OVERFLOWING OF WATER TANKS, APPARATUS AND PIPES: Loss or damage to property by water or otherwise on account of bursting or accidental overflowing of water tanks, apparatus and pipes is covered. MISSILE TESTING OPERATIONS: Destruction or damage, due to impact or otherwise from trajectory/ projectiles in connection with missile testing operations by the Insured or anyone else, is covered. LEAKAGE FROM AUTOMATIC SPRINKLER INSTALLATIONS: Damage, caused by water accidentally discharged or leaked out from automatic sprinkler installations in the insured's premises, is covered. However, such destruction or damage caused by repairs or alterations to the buildings or premises; repairs removal or extension of the sprinkler installation; and defects in construction known to the insured, are not covered. BUSH FIRE: This covers damage caused by burning, whether accidental or otherwise, of bush and jungles and the clearing of lands by fire, but excludes destruction or damage, caused by Forest Fire. RISKS NOT COVERED BY FIRE INSURANCE POLICY Claims not maintainable/ covered under this policy are as follows: o Theft during or after the occurrence of any insured risks o War or nuclear perils o Electrical breakdowns o Ordered burning by a public authority o Subterranean fire o Loss or damage to bullion, precious stones, curios (value more than Rs.10000), plans, drawings, money, securities, cheque books, computer records except if they are categorically included. o Loss or damage to property moved to a different location (except machinery and equipment for cleaning, repairs or renovation for more than 60 days). CHARACTERICTICS OF FIRE INSURANCE CONTRACT A fire insurance contract has the following characteristics namely: (a) Fire insurance is a personal contract A fire insurance contract does not ensure the safety of the insured property. Its purpose is to see that the insured does not suffer loss by reason of his interest in the insured property. Hence, if his connection with the insured property ceases by being transferred to another person, the contract of insurance also comes to an end. It is not so connected with the subject matter of the insurance as to pass automatically to the new owner to whom the subject is transferred. The contract of fire insurance is thus a mere a personal contract between the insured and the insurer for the payment of money. It can be validly assigned to another only with the consent of the insurer. (b) It is entire and indivisible contract. Where the insurance is of a binding and its contents of stock and machinery, the contract is expressly agreed to be divisible. Thus , where the insured is guilty of breach of duty towards the insurer in respect of one subject matters covered by the policy , the insurer can avoid the contract as a whole and not only in respect of that particular subject mater , unless the right is restricted by the terms of the policy. (c) Cause of fire is immaterial In insuring against fire, the insured wishes to protect him from any loss or detriment which he may suffer upon the occurrence of a fire, however it may be caused. So long as the loss is due to fire within the meaning of the policy, it is immaterial what the cause of fire is, generally. Thus , whether it was because the fire was lighted improperly or was lighted properly but negligently attended to thereafter or whether the fire was caused on account of the negligence of the insured or his servants or strangers is immaterial and the insurer is liable to indemnify the insured. In the absence of fraud, the proximate cause of the loss only is to be looked to. The cause of the fire however becomes material to be investigated (1). Where the fire is occasioned not by the negligence of, but by the willful (2) Where the fire is due is to cause falling with the exception in the contract. LIMITATION OF TIME Indemnity insurance was an agreement by the insurer to confer on the insured a contractual right, which prima facie, came into existence immediately when the loss was suffered by the happening of an event insured against, to be put by the insurer into the same position in which the accused would have had the event not occurred but in no better position. There was a primary liability, i.e. to indemnify, and a secondary liability i.e. to put the insured in his pre-loss position, either by paying him a specifying amount or it might be in some other manner. But the fact that the insurer had an option as to the way in which he would put the insured into pre-loss position did not mean that he was not liable to indemnify him in one way or another, immediately the loss occurred. The primary liability arises on the happening of the event insured against. So, the time ran from the date of the loss and not from the date on which the policy was avoided and any suit filed after that time limit would be barred by limitation.[2] WHO MAY INSURE AGAINST FIRE? Only those who have insurable interest in a property can take fire insurance thereon. The following are among the class of persons who have been held to possess insurable interest in, property and can insure such property: 1. Owners of property, whether sole, or joint owner, or partner in the firm owning the property. It is not necessary that they should possession also. Thus a lesser and a lessee can both insure it jointly or severely. 2. The vender and purchaser have both rights to insure. The vendor's interest continues until the conveyance is completed and even thereafter, if he has an unpaid vendor's lien over it. 3. The mortgagor and mortgagee have both distinct interests in the mortgaged property and can insure, per Lord Esher M.R."The mortgagee does not claim his interest through the mortgagor , but by virtue of the mortgage which has given him an interest distinct from that of the mortgagor"[3] 4. Trustees are legal owners and beneficiaries the beneficial owners of trust property and each can insure it. 5. Bailees such as carriers, pawnbrokers or warehouse men are responsible for there safety of the property entrusted to them and so can insure it. PERSON NOT ENTITLED TO INSURE One who has no insurable interest in a property cannot insure it. For example: 1. An unsecured creditor cannot insure his debtor's property, because his right is only against the debtor personally. He can, however, insure the debtor's life. 2. A shareholder in a company cannot insure the property of the company as he has no insurable interest in any asset of the company even if he is the sole shareholder. As was the case of Macaura v. Northen Assurance Co.[4] Macaura. Because neither as a simple creditor nor as a shareholder had he any insurable interest in it. CONCEPT OF UTMOST FAITH As all contracts of insurance are contracts of utmost good faith, the proposer for fire insurance is also under a positive duty to make a full disclosure of all material facts and not to make any misrepresentations or misdescreptions thereof during the negotiations for obtaining the policy. This duty of utmost good faith applies equally to the insurer and the insured. There must be complete good faith on the part of the assured. This duty to observe utmost good faith is ensured b requiring the proposer to declare that the statements in the proposal form are true, that they shall be the basis of the contract and that any incorrect or false statement therein shall avoid the policy. The insurer can then rely on them to assess the risk and to fix appropriate premium and accept the risk or decline it. The questions in the proposal form for a fire policy are so framed as to get all information which is material to the insurer to know in order to assess the risk and fix the premium, that is, all material facts. Thus the proposer is required too give information relating to: o The proposer's name and address and occupation o The description of the subject matter to be insured sufficient for the purpose of identifying it including, o A description of the locality where it is situated o How the property is being used, whether for any manufacturing purpose or hazardous trade.etc o Whether it has already been insured o And also ant personal insurance history including the claims if any made buy the proposer, etc. Apart from questions in the proposal form, the proposer should disclose whether questioned or not- 1. Any information which would indicate the risk of fire to be above normal; 2. Any fact which would indicate that the insurer's liability may be more than normal can be expected such as existence of valuable manuscripts or documents, etc, and 3. Any information bearing upon the more; hazard involved. The proposer is not obliged to disclose- 1. Information which the insurer may be presumed to know in the ordinary course of his business as an insurer; 2. Facts which tend to show that the risk is lesser than otherwise; 3. Facts as to which information is waived by the insurer; and 4. Facts which need not disclosed in view of a policy condition. Thus, assured is under a solemn obligation to make full disclosure of material facts which may be relevant for the insurer to take into account while deciding whether the proposal should be accepted or not. While making a disclosure of the relevant facts, the DOCTRINE OF PROXIMATE CAUSE Where more perils than one act simultaneously or successively, it will be difficult to assess the relative effect of each peril or pick out one of these as the actual cause of the loss. In such cases, the doctrine of proximate cause helps to determine the actual cause of the loss. Proximate cause was defined in Pawsey v. Scottish Union and National Ins. Co.,[5]as "the active, effective cause that sets in motion a train of events which brings about a result without the intervention of any force started and working actively from a new and independent source." It is dominant and effective cause even though it is not the nearest in time. It is therefore necessary when a loss occurs to investigate and ascertain what is the proximate cause of the loss in order to determine whether the insurer is liable for the loss. PROXIMATE CAUSE OF DAMAGE A fire policy covers risks where damage is caused by way of fire. The fire may be caused by lightening, by explosion or implosion. It may be result of riot, strike or on account of any, malicious act. However these factors must ultimately lead to a fire and the fire must be the proximate cause of damage. Therefore, a loss caused by theft of property by militants would not be covered by the fire policy. The view that the loss was covered under the malicious act clause and therefore .the insurer was liable to meet the claim is untenable, because unless and until fire is the proximate cause f damage, no claim under a fire policy would be maintainable.[6] PROCEDURE FOR TAKING A FIRE INSURANCE POLICY The steps involved for taking a fire insurance policy are mentioned below: 1. Selection of the Insurance Company: There are many companies that offer fire insurance against unforeseen events. The individual or the company must take care in the selection of an insurance company. The judgment should rest on factors like goodwill, and long term standing in the market. The insurance companies can either be approached directly or through agents, some of them who are appointed by the company itself. 2. Submission of the Proposal Form: The individual or the business owner must submit a completed prescribed proposal form with the necessary details to the insurance company for proper consideration and subsequent approval. The information in the Proposal Form should be given in good faith and must be accompanied by documents that verify the actual worth of the property or goods that are to be insured. Most of the companies have their own personalized Proposal Forms wherein the exact information has to be provided. 3. Survey of the Property/ Consideration: Once the duly filled Proposal Form is submitted to the insurance company, it makes an "on the spot" survey of the property or the goods that are the subject matter of the insurance. This is usually done by the investigators, or the surveyors, who are appointed by the company and they need to report back to them after a thorough research and survey. This is imperative to assess the risk involved and calculate the rate of premium. 4. Acceptance of the Proposal: Once the detailed and comprehensive report is submitted to the insurance company by the surveyors and related officers, the former makes a thorough perusal of the Proposal Form and the report. If the company is satisfied that their is no lacuna or foul play or fraud involved, it formally "accepts" the Proposal Form and directs the insured to pay the first premium to the company. It is to be noted that the insurance policy commences after the payment and the acceptance of the premium by the insured and the company, respectively. The Insurance Company issues a Cover Note after the acceptance of the first premium. PROCEDURE ON RECEIPT OF NOTICE OF LOSS On receipt of the notice of loss, the insurer requires the insured to furnish details pertaining to the loss in a claim from relating to the following information- 1. Circumstances and cause of the fire; 2. Occupancy and situation of the premises in which the fire occurred; 3. Insured's interest in the insured property; that is capacity in which the insured claims and whether any others are interested in the property; 4. Other insurances on the property; 5. Value of each item of the property at the time of loss together with proofs thereof , and value of the salvage ,if any; and 6. Amount claimed Furnishing such information relating to the claim is also a condition precedent to the liability of the insurer. The above information will enable the insurer to verify whether- (1) The policy is in force; (2) The peril causing the loss is an insured peril; (3) The property damaged or lost is the insured property. Rules for calculation of value of property The value of the insured property is- 1) Its value at the time of loss, and 2) At the place of loss, and 3) Its real or intrinsic value without any regard for its sentimental vale. Loss of prospective profit or other consequential loss is not to be taken into account. FILING OF CLAIMS How a claim arises? After a contract of fire insurance has come into existence, a claim may arise by the operation of one or more insured perils on an unsecured property. There may in addition one or more uninsured perils also operating simultaneously or in succession of the property. In order that the claim should be valid the following conditions must be fulfilled: 1. The occurrence should take place due to the operation of an insured peril or where both insured and other perils operated , the dominant or efficient cause of the loss must have been an insured peril; 2. The operation of the peril must not come within the scope of the policy exceptions; 3. The event must have caused loss or damage of the insured property; 4. The occurrence must be during the currency of the policy; 5. The insured must have fulfilled all the policy conditions and should also comply with requirements to be fulfilled after the claim had arisen. MATERIAL FACTS IN FIRE INSURANCE: PREVIOUS CONVICTION OF THE ACCUSED The criminal record of an assured could affect the moral hazard, which insurers had to assess, and the non-disclosure of a serious criminal offence like robbery by the plaintiff would a material non-disclosure. INSURED'S DUTY ON OUTBREAK OF FIRE, IMPLIED DUTY On the outbreak of a fire the insured is under an implied duty to observe good faith towards the insurers and the in pursuance of it the insured must do his best to avert or minimize the loss. For this purpose he must (1) take all reasonable measures to put out the fire or prevent its spread, and (2) assist the fire brigade and others in their attempts to do so at any rate not come in their way. With this object the insured property may be removed to a place of safety. Any loss or damage the insured property may sustain in the course of attempts to combat the fire or during its removal to a place of safety etc., will be deemed to be loss proximately caused by the fire. If the insured fails in his duty willfully and thereby increases the burden of the insurer, the insured will be deprived of his right to revive any indemnity under the policy.[7] INSURER'S RIGHTS ON THE OUTBREAK OF FIRE (A) Implied Rights Corresponding to the insured's duties the insurers have rights by the law, in view of the liability they have undertaken to indemnify the insured. Thus the insurers have a right to- o Take reasonable measures to extinguish the fire and to minimize the loss to property, and o For that purpose, to enter upon and take possession of the property. The insurers will be liable to make good all the damage the property may sustain during the steps taken to put out the fire and as long as it in their possession, because all that is considered the natural and direct consequence of the fire; it has therefore been held in the case of Ahmedbhoy Habibhoy v. Bombay Fire Marine Ins. Co [8] that the extent of the damage flowing from the insured peril must be assessed when the insurer gives back and not as at the time when the peril ceased. (B) Loss caused by steps taken to avert the risk Damage sustained due to action taken to avoid an insured risk was not a consequence of that risk and was not recoverable unless the insured risk had begun to operate. In the case of Liverpool and London and Globe Insurance Co. Ltd v. Canadian General Electric Co. Ltd., [9] the Canadian Supreme Court held that "the loss was caused by the fire fighters' mistaken belief that their action was necessary to avert an explosion , and the loss was not recoverable under the insurance policy, which covered only damage caused by fire explosion., and the loss was not recoverable under the insurance policy, which covered only damage caused by fire or explosion." (C) Express rights Condition 5- in order to protect their rights well insurers have prescribed for better rights expressly in this condition according to which on the happening of any destruction or damage the insurer and every person authorized by the insurer may enter, take or keep possession of the building or premises where the damage has happened or require it to be delivered to them and deal with it for all reasonable purposes like examining, arranging, removing or sell or dispose off the same for the account of whom it may concern. When and how a claim is made? In the event of a fire loss covered under the fire insurance policy, the Insured shall immediately give notice thereof to the insurance company. Within 15 days of the occurrence of such loss, the Insured should submit a claim in writing, giving the details of damages and their estimated values. Details of other insurances on the same property should also be declared. The Insured should procure and produce, at his own expense, any document like plans, account books, investigation reports etc. on demand by the insurance company. HOW INSURANCE MAY CEASE? Insurance under a fire policy may cease in any of the following circumstances, namely: (1) Insurer avoiding the policy by reason of the insured making misrepresentation, misdescription or non-disclosure of any material particular; (2) If there is a fall or displacement of any insured building range or structure or part thereof , then on the expiry of seven days wherefrom, except where the fall or displacement was due to the action of any insured peril; notwithstanding this, the insurance may be revived on revised terms if express notice is given to the company as soon as the occurrence takes place; (3) The insurance may be terminated at any tie at the request of the insured and at the option of the company on 15 days notice to the insured CONCLUSION Tangible property is exposed to numerous risks like fire, floods, explosions, earthquake, riot and war, etc. and insurance protection can be had against most of these risks severally or in combination. The form in which the cover is expressed is numerous and varied. Fire insurance in its strict sense is concerned with giving protection against fire and fire only. So while granting a fire insurance policy all the requisites need be fulfilled. The insured are under a moral and legal obligation to be at utmost good faith and should be telling true facts and not just fake grounds only with the greed to recover money. Further all insurance policies help in the development of a Developing nation. Hence insurance companies have a burden to help the insured when the insured are in trouble. REFERENCE: 1. (1983) VR 698 (Supreme Court of Vienna) 2. Callaghan v. Dominion Insurance Co. Ltd. (1997) 2 Lloyd's Rep. 541 (QBD) 3. Small v. U.K Marine Insurance Association (1897) 2 QB 311 4. (1925) AC 619 5. (1907) Case. 6. National Insurance Company v. Ashok Kumar Barariio 7. Devlin v. Queen Insurance Co, (1882) 46 UCR 611. 8. (1912) 40 IA 10 PC 9. (1981) 123 DLR (3d) 513 (Supreme Court of Canada) Books Referred: 1. The Economics of Fire Protection by Ganapathy Ramachandran 2. Modern Insurance Law, by John Birds 3. The Handbook of Insurance Regulatory and Development Authority Act and Regulations with Allied Laws ,by Nagar Article Source: https://EzineArticles.com/expert/Apoorva_Yadav/129771 Article Source: http://EzineArticles.com/810922